The original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clear-cuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill’s property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious mill-workers to build him a tavern, on 1 July 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels quickly appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered town-site dubbed Granville, B.I. (“B.I” standing for “Burrard Inlet”). As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the town site was made the rail-head of the CPR, it was renamed “Vancouver” and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886.
By 1887, the transcontinental railway was extended to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient, Eastern Canada, and Europe.As of 2009, Port Metro Vancouver is the busiest and largest port in Canada, and the most diversified port in North America.While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban center surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry.
Major film production studios in Vancouver and Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centers in North America,earning it the film industry nickname, Hollywood North.
In 2011 Vancouver recorded 603,502 people in the city, making it the eighth largest Canadian municipality.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.Located on Australia’s east coast, the metropolis surrounds the world’s largest natural harbor, and sprawls towards the Blue Mountains to the west.Residents of Sydney are known as “Sydneysiders”. Sydney is the second official seat, and second official residence, of the Governor-General of Australia, the Prime Minister of Australia and the Cabinet of Australia.
The first British settlers arrived in 1788 to found Sydney as a penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Since convict transportation ended in the mid-19th century, the city has transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic center. The population of Sydney at the time of the 2011 census was 4.39 million, 1.5 million of which were born overseas, representing many different nationalities and making Sydney one of the most multicultural cities in the world.
There are more than 250 different languages spoken in Sydney and about one-third of residents speak a language other than English at home.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic region,with 917,297 people living in the municipality,approximately 1.6 million in the urban area and 2.2 million in the metropolitan area.
The city is spread across 14 islands on the coast in the southeast of Sweden at the mouth of Lake Mälaren, by the Stockholm archipelago and the Baltic sea. The area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, and was founded as a city in 1252 by Birger Jarl. It is also the capital of Stockholm County.
Stockholm is the cultural, media, political, and economic centre of Sweden. The Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country’s GDP and is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita.It is an important global city and the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region.The city is home to some of Europe’s top ranking universities, such as the Karolinska Institute and KTH Royal Institute of Technology and hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall.
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans.Its name translates to White city. The city has a population of 1.23 million, while over 1.65 million people live in its metro area (which encompasses administrative limits of City of Belgrade).
One of the most important prehistoric cultures of Europe, the Vinča culture, evolved within the Belgrade area in the 6th millennium BC. In antiquity, Thraco-Dacians inhabited the region, and after 279 BC Celts conquered the city, naming it Singidūn.It was conquered by the Romans during the reign of Augustus, and awarded city rights in the mid-2nd century.It was settled by the Slavs in the 520s, and changed hands several times between the Byzantine Empire, Frankish Empire, Bulgarian Empire and Kingdom of Hungary before it became the capital of Serbian king Stephen Dragutin (1282–1316). In 1521, Belgrade was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and became the seat of the Sanjak of Smederevo.It frequently passed from Ottoman to Habsburg rule, which saw the destruction of most of the city during the Austro-Ottoman wars. Belgrade was again named the capital of Serbia in 1841. Northern Belgrade remained the southernmost Habsburg post until 1918, when the city was reunited. As a strategic location, the city was battled over in 115 wars and razed to the ground 44 times.Belgrade was the capital of Yugoslavia (in various forms of governments) from its creation in 1918, to its final dissolution in 2006.
Belgrade has a special administrative status within Serbia and it is one of five statistical regions of Serbia. Its metropolitan territory is divided into 17 municipalities, each with its own local council.It covers 3.6% of Serbia’s territory, and 22.5% of the country’s population lives in the city.
Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria’s primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million (2.6 million within the metropolitan area,nearly one third of Austria’s population), and its cultural, economic, and political center. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Until the beginning of the 20th century it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I the city had 2 million inhabitants.Today it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin.
Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city lies in the east of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
1. Mexico City
Mexico City ,capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the union.It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole. Mexico City is the country’s largest city as well as its most important political, cultural, educational and financial center.
As an “alpha” global city Mexico City is one of the most important financial centers in the Americas.It is located in the Valley of Mexico (Valle de México), a large valley in the high plateaus at the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 metres (7,350 ft). The city consists of sixteen boroughs.
The 2009 estimated population for the city proper was around 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometres (573 sq mi).According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the Greater Mexico City population is 21.2 million people, making it the largest metropolitan area in the western hemisphere, the eleventh largest agglomeration, and the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world.
Istanbul, once known as Constantinople and Byzantium before that, is the most populous city in Turkey, and the country’s economic, cultural, and historical center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosphorus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives on the Asian side.The city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (coterminous with Istanbul Province), both hosting a population of around 14 million residents.Istanbul is one of the world’s most populous cities and ranks as world’s 5th-largest city proper and the largest European city.
Beijing, formerly Peking, is the capital of the People’s Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world. Its population in 2013 was 21,150,000.The city proper is the 13th largest in the world. The metropolis, located in northern China, is governed as a direct-controlled municipality under the national government with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast, together the three divisions form the Jingjinji metropolitan region and the national capital region of China.
Manaus ,is the capital city of the state of Amazonas in northern Brazil. It is situated at the confluence of the Negro and Solimões rivers. With a population of more than 2.0 million it is the most populous city of Amazonas and also the most populous city of the Amazon rainforest.
The city was founded in 1693–94 as the Fort of São José do Rio Negro. It was elevated to a town in 1832 with the name of “Manaus”, an altered spelling of the indigenous Manaós peoples, and legally transformed into a city on October 24, 1848, with the name of Cidade da Barra do Rio Negro, Portuguese for “The City of the Margins of Black River”. On September 4, 1856 it returned to its original name.
Manaus is located in the middle of the Amazon rainforest, and access to the city is primarily by boat or airplane. This isolation helped preserve both the nature as well as the culture of the city. The culture of Manaus, more than in any other urban area of Brazil, preserves the habits of Native Brazilian tribes. The city is the main entrance to visit the fauna and flora of the Brazilian Amazon. Few places in the world afford such a variety of plants, birds, insects, and fishes.
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India and the ninth most populous agglomeration in the world, with an estimated city population of 18.4 million. Along with the neighboring regions of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, it is one of the most populous urban regions in the world and the seсond most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 20.7 million as of 2011.Mumbai lies on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbor. In 2009, Mumbai was named an alpha world city.It is also the wealthiest city in India and has the highest GDP of any city in South, West, or Central Asia.Mumbai has the highest number of billionaires and millionaires among all cities in India.